quarta-feira, 31 de dezembro de 2014

Encontros improváveis: Eleni Kairandrou e Fernando Pessoa

Desejo a todos um óptimo ano de 2015! 


Se eu pudesse trincar a terra toda
E sentir-lhe um paladar,
Seria mais feliz um momento ...
Mas eu nem sempre quero ser feliz.
É preciso ser de vez em quando infeliz
Para se poder ser natural...
Nem tudo é dias de sol,
E a chuva, quando falta muito, pede-se.
Por isso tomo a infelicidade com a felicidade
Naturalmente, como quem não estranha
Que haja montanhas e planícies
E que haja rochedos e erva ...
O que é preciso é ser-se natural e calmo
Na felicidade ou na infelicidade,
Sentir como quem olha,
Pensar como quem anda,
E quando se vai morrer, lembrar-se de que o dia morre,
E que o poente é belo e é bela a noite que fica...
Assim é e assim seja ...
Alberto Caeiro [Fernando Pessoa (1888-1935)]
"Se eu pudesse trincar a terra toda" in «O Guardador de Rebanhos», Poema XXI [1914]

Dito por Pedro Lamares no seu Projeto COiNCIDÊNCIA (2009)
Filme gentilmente disponibilizado no site Beachfront B-Roll
Música: Eleni Kairandrou, "Ulysses' Theme / Litany" in «Ulysses' Gaze. OST» (1994)

Mais textos e crónicas sobre Fernando Pessoa no Bioterra.

segunda-feira, 29 de dezembro de 2014

Um poema do meu filho


"Eu falo de amor,eu falo de paixão,
Expresso na poesia as coisas do coração.
Sou o LS e na rima dos meus versos,
Venho falar das belezas,que existem no universo.

Rap e poesia...Arte em movimento...
Inspiração,de repente,de momento.
Nossa cultura é rica e diversificada
Para dar o meu recado tô chegando na parada.

A vida é bela e viver é bom demais,
Viver intensamente,viver em paz.
Viver em plenitude como o poeta diz,
Viver sem receio,sem medo de ser feliz.

A poesia no rap,o rap na poesia,
Essa união já deu certo e contagia.
Inspiração fluindo dentro do peito,
Mostrando que na arte não pode haver preconceito."

Leandro Soares, 12 anos

domingo, 28 de dezembro de 2014

sábado, 27 de dezembro de 2014

Polifonia Portuguesa- Duarte Lobo


COMO VEJO O MUNDO 
"Nós temos a religião suficiente para nos odiarmos, mas não a que baste para nos amarmos uns aos outros."~ Jonathan Swift

sexta-feira, 26 de dezembro de 2014

Poema da Semana- Não deixes que termine o dia sem teres crescido um pouco, por Walt Whitman



Não deixes que termine o dia sem teres crescido um pouco,
sem teres sido feliz, sem teres aumentado os teus sonhos.
Não te deixes vencer pelo desalento.
Não permitas que alguém retire o direito de te expressares,
que é quase um dever.
Não abandones as ânsias de fazer da tua vida algo extraordinário.
Não deixes de acreditar que as palavras e a poesia podem mudar o mundo.
Aconteça o que acontecer a nossa essência ficará intacta.
Somos seres cheios de paixão.
A vida é deserto e oásis.
Derruba-nos, ensina-nos, converte-nos em protagonistas de nossa própria história.
Ainda que o vento sopre contra, a poderosa obra continua:
tu podes tocar uma estrofe.
Não deixes nunca de sonhar, porque os sonhos tornam o homem livre.


Walt Whitman

quinta-feira, 25 de dezembro de 2014

Feliz 25 de Dezembro- "Istambul" espectáculo ao vivo de Jordi Savall e Hespèrion XXI


Dimitri Cantemir (1673-1723) compôs "O Livro da Ciência da Música", que dedicou ao sultão Ahmed III. 
As músicas otomanas em diálogo com as tradições arménias, gregas e sefarditas.

quarta-feira, 24 de dezembro de 2014

Encontros improváveis: Mahdieh Mohammadkhani e Antero de Quental



Nirvana

Viver assim: sem ciúmes, sem saudades,
Sem amor, sem anseios, sem carinhos,
Livre de angústias e felicidades,
Deixando pelo chão rosas e espinhos;

Poder viver em todas as idades;
Poder andar por todos os caminhos;
Indiferente ao bem e às falsidades,
Confundindo chacais e passarinhos;

Passear pela terra, e achar tristonho
Tudo que em torno se vê, nela espalhado;
A vida olhar como através de um sonho;

Chegar onde eu cheguei, subir à altura
Onde agora me encontro - é ter chegado
Aos extremos da Paz e da Ventura!


Antero de Quental, in "Sonetos"

segunda-feira, 22 de dezembro de 2014

EcoNatal- A História do Racismo e do Escravagismo (BBC)

A "História do Racismo" é um documentário produzido e realizado pela British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) - que aborda o legado deixado pelo racismo e pelo escravismo ao longo dos séculos -, como parte da comemoração do bicentenário da Lei de Abolição ao Tráfico de Escravos (1807), a BBC 4, dentro da chamada "Abolition Season", exibiu uma série composta por três episódios, independentes entre si, abordando a história e os aspectos do racismo pelo mundo. São eles: "A Cor do Dinheiro", "Impactos Fatais" e "Um Legado Selvagem".

quarta-feira, 17 de dezembro de 2014

For Sale: “Your Name Here” in a Prestigious Science Journal

An investigation into some scientific papers finds worrying irregularities.



Klaus Kayser has been publishing electronic journals for so long he can remember mailing them to subscribers on floppy disks. His 19 years of experience have made him keenly aware of the problem of scientific fraud. In his view, he takes extraordinary measures to protect the journal he currently edits, Diagnostic Pathology. For instance, to prevent authors from trying to pass off microscope images from the Internet as their own, he requires them to send along the original glass slides.

Despite his vigilance, however, signs of possible research misconduct have crept into some articles published in Diagnostic Pathology. Six of the 16 articles in the May 2014 issue, for instance, contain suspicious repetitions of phrases and other irregularities.* When Scientific American informed Kayser, he was apparently unaware of the problem. "Nobody told this to me," he says. "I'm very grateful to you."

Diagnostic Pathology, which is owned by Springer, is considered to be a reputable journal. Under Kayser’s stewardship, its “impact factor”—a crude measure of a journal's reputation, generated by number of times the article is cited in the published scientific literature—is 2.411, which puts it solidly in the top quarter of all scientific journals tracked by Thomson Reuters in its Journal Citation Reports, and 27th out of the 76 ranked pathology journals.

Kayser’s journal is not alone. In the past few years similar signs of foul play in the peer-reviewed literature have cropped up across the scientific publishing world—including those owned by publishing powerhouses Wiley, Public Library of Science, Taylor & Francis and Nature Publishing Group (which publishes Scientific American).

The apparent fraud is taking place as the world of scientific publishing—and research—is undergoing rapid change. Scientists, for whom published articles are the route to promotion or tenure or support via grants, are competing harder than ever before to get their articles into peer-reviewed journals. Scientific journals are proliferating on the Web but, even so, supply is still unable to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for respectable scientific outlets. The worry is that this pressure can lead to cheating.

The dubious papers aren't easy to spot. Taken individually each research article seems legitimate. But in an investigation by Scientific American that analyzed the language used in more than 100 scientific articles we found evidence of some worrisome patterns—signs of what appears to be an attempt to game the peer-review system on an industrial scale.

For example, one of the articles published in the May 2014 Diagnostic Pathology looks on the surface like a typical meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature. Its authors—eight scientists from Guangxi Medical University in China—assess whether different variations in a gene known as XPC can be linked to gastric cancer. They find no such link, and concede that their paper isn't the final word on the matter:
“However, it is necessary to conduct large sample studies using standardized unbiased genotyping methods, homogeneous gastric cancer patients and well-matched controls. Moreover, gene–gene and gene–environment interactions should also be considered in the analysis. Such studies taking these factors into account may eventually lead to our better, comprehensive understanding of the association between the XPC polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk.”
A perfectly normal conclusion for a perfectly ordinary paper. It is nothing that should set off any alarm bells. Yet, compare it with a paper published several years earlier in the European Journal of Human Genetics (which is owned by Nature Publishing Group), a meta-analysis of whether variations in a gene known as CDH1 could be linked to prostate cancer (PCA):
“However, it is necessary to conduct large trials using standardized unbiased methods, homogeneous PCA patients and well-matched controls, with the assessors blinded to the data. Moreover, gene–gene and gene–environment interactions should also be considered in the analysis. Such studies taking these factors into account may eventually lead to our better, comprehensive understanding of the association between the CDH1−160 C/A polymorphism and PCA risk.
The wording is almost identical, down to the awkward phrase, "lead to our better, comprehensive understanding." The only substantial differences are the specific gene (CDH1 rather than XPC) and the disease (gastric cancer rather than PCA).

This is not a simple case of plagiarism. Many seemingly independent research teams have been plagiarizing the same passage. An article in PLoS ONE may eventually lead to "our better, comprehensive understanding" of the association between mutations in the XRCC1 gene and thyroid cancer risk. Another in the International Journal of Cancer (published by Wiley) might eventually lead to "our better, comprehensive understanding" of the association between mutations in the XPA gene and cancer risk—and so on. Sometimes there are minor variations in the wording but in more than a dozen articles we found almost identical language with different genes and diseases seemingly plunked into the paragraph, like an esoteric version of Mad Libs, the parlor game in which participants fill in missing words in a passage.

We have found other examples of fill-in-the-blanks research. A search for the phrase "excluded because of obvious irrelevance" retrieved more than a dozen research articles of various types—all but one written by scientists from China. "Using a standardized form, data from published studies" also yields more than a dozen research articles, all from China. "Begger's funnel plot" gets dozens of hits, all from China.

“Beggers funnel plot” is particularly revealing. There is no such thing as a Beggers funnel plot. "It doesn't exist. That's the point," says Guillaume Filion, a biologist at the Center for Genomic Regulation in Barcelona, Spain (pdf). A statistician named Colin Begg and another statistician named Matthias Egger each invented tests and tools to look for biases that creep into meta-analyses. "Begger's funnel plot" appears to be an accidental hybrid of the two names.

Filion spotted the proliferation of "Begger's" tests by accident. While looking for trends in medical journal articles, he found papers that had almost identical titles, similar choices in graphics and the same quirky errors, such as "Begger's funnel plot." He reckons that the papers came from the same source, even though they are ostensibly written by different groups of authors. "It's difficult to imagine that 28 people independently would invent the name of a statistical test," Filion says. "So that's why we were very shocked."

A quick Internet search uncovers outfits that offer to arrange, for a fee, authorship of papers to be published in peer-reviewed outlets. They seem to cater to researchers looking for a quick and dirty way of getting a publication in a prestigious international scientific journal.

In November Scientific American asked a Chinese-speaking reporter to contact MedChina, which offers dozens of scientific "topics for sale" and scientific journal "article transfer" agreements. Posing as a person shopping for a scientific authorship, the reporter spoke with a MedChina representative who explained that the papers were already more or less accepted to peer-reviewed journals; apparently, all that was needed was a little editing and revising. The price depends, in part, on the impact factor of the target journal and whether the paper is experimental or meta-analytic. In this case, the MedChina rep offered authorship of a meta-analysis linking a protein to papillary thyroid cancer slated to be published in a journal with an impact factor of 3.353. The cost: 93,000 RMB—about $15,000.

The most likely intended outlet for the MedChina-brokered paper is Clinical Endocrinology. It is one of five journals with an impact factor of 3.353 and the closest in subject matter. "Obviously, it's a matter of great concern," says John Bevan, a senior editor at the journal. "I'm distraught to think of this going on and flooding the market." Approximately two weeks after being contacted by Scientific American Bevan confirmed that a suspicious-looking article about biomarkers for papillary thyroid cancer—and which had an author added during the paper revisions—was identified and rejected.

Much of the funding for these suspect papers comes from the Chinese government. Of the first 100 papers identified by Scientific American, 24 had received funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), a governmental funding agency roughly equivalent to the U.S.'s National Science Foundation. Another 17 acknowledged grants from other government sources. Yang Wei, president of NSFC, confirmed that the 24 suspicious papers identified by Scientific American were subsequently referred to the Foundation's Bureau of Discipline, Inspection, Supervision and Auditing (pdf), which investigates several hundred allegations of misconduct each year. "Tens of disciplinary actions have been taken by NSFC annually for research misconduct, though cases of ghostwriting are less common," Yang e-mailed. Last year one of the agency's disciplinary actions involved a scientist who purchased a grant proposal from an Internet site. Yang stresses that the agency takes steps to combat misconduct, including the recent installation of a "similarity check" for possible plagiarism in grant proposals. (In the year since the system went online the check found several hundred cases of "considerable similarities" out of some 150,000 grant applications, Yang claims.) But when it comes to paper mills, Yang says, "we do not have much experience about this issue and are certainly glad to listen to your suggestions."

Some publishers are only now catching up to the problem of Chinese paper mills. "I wasn't aware there was a market out there for authorship," says Jigisha Patel, BioMed Central's associate editorial director for research integrity. Now that BioMed Central (which is owned by Springer and publishes Diagnostic Pathology) has been alerted to the issue, Patel says,"we now can look into it and address it." Within two weeks of being contacted by Scientific American, BioMed Central announced that it had identified roughly 50 manuscripts that had been assessed by phony peer reviewers. The publisher told the Retraction Watch blog that "a third party may be involved, and influencing the peer review process." It is possible that these manuscripts came from paper mills. We were able to look at the titles and authors of about half a dozen of those papers. All appear very similar in style and subject matter to other paper mill-written meta-analyses, and all were from groups of Chinese authors.

Other publishers have begun to combat the flood of dubious papers. Damian Pattinson, editorial director of PLoS ONE, says the journal instituted safeguards last April. "[E]very meta-analysis we get has to go through a specific editorial check..." that forces authors to provide additional information, including a justification for why they performed the study in the first place, he says. "As a result of this, the rate of papers that are actually getting to reviewers has dropped by about 90 percent. So we are very aware of this issue." Even so, the list compiled by Scientific American contains four suspect papers that were published in PLoS ONE after the safeguards were instituted, and authorship on an upcoming PLoS ONE article was put up for sale by MedChina as this article was being written. When we asked Pattinson about these, he replied: “We will correct and retract papers if there is any indication of misconduct. It’s a problem issue and one that we’re very aware of.”

BMC, Public Library of Science and other the publishers use plagiarism-checking software to try to cut down on fraud. Software, however, doesn't always solve the issue of plagiarism in journals, Patel warns, paper mills “add another layer of complexity to the problem. It's very worrying."

Publishers at the moment are fighting an uphill battle. "Without insider information it's very difficult to police this," Clinical Endocrinology's Bevan says. CE and its publisher, Wiley, are trying to close loopholes in the editorial process to flag suspicious late changes in authorship and other irregularities. "You have to accept that people are submitting things in good faith and honesty," Bevan says.

That is the essential threat. Now that a number of companies have figured out how to make money off of scientific misconduct, that presumption of honesty is in danger of becoming an anachronism. "The whole system of peer review works on the basis of trust," Pattinson says. "Once that is damaged, it is very difficult for the peer review system to deal with."

"We've got a problem here," Filion says. He believes that the deluge is just beginning. "There is so much pressure and so much money at stake that were going to see all sorts of excesses in the future."

Additional reporting by Paris Liu.

The list below is 100 published articles that would seem to have the hallmarks of fill-in-the-blanks science. Inclusion in this list does not imply that any given article was written by a paper mill nor does it imply that the article is definitely plagiaristic. Given the pattern of writing and these articles' similarities to previously published work, however, we believe they are worthy of scrutiny by their publishers. >>View the list

There are many more suspicious articles out there; and more are being published every day. These are simply the first 100 we found.

*Correction (2/13/15): This sentence was edited after posting. The original cited the number of articles in the May 2014 issue of Diagnostic Pathology as 14.


Further Reading:
Filion, Guillaume. "A flurry of copycats on PubMed."


Ioannidis J.P.A., Chang C. Q., Lam T. K., Schully S. D., Khoury M. J. "The Geometric Increase in Meta-Analyses from China in the Genomic Era." PLoS ONE 8(6): e65602. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065602

Hvistendahl, Mara. "China's Publication Bazaar." Science, 29 November 2013, pp. 1035–1039. DOI: 10.1126/science.342.6162.1035

domingo, 14 de dezembro de 2014

Poema da semana: Às vezes, quase sempre, outras vezes, por João Soares

O Anjo - Irene Vilar

Às vezes ou quase sempre ou outras vezes

Às vezes sinto-me sem rosa dos ventos
Outras vezes um farol e âncora dos desprotegidos
dos náufragos de sonhos e delírios
às vezes ou quase sempre um felino
independente com olhar meigo
e de uma sensibilidade de nuvens
Um coração cheio de natureza.


Às vezes sou áspero e rápido
e elétrico puro
da matéria mais indivisível
que o fotão e desespero
e fulmino e queimo a lava que brotou
ainda cheirando a enxofre

Quase sempre adoro morder frutos e bagas
Sorver um rio inteiro
Uma multidão de Paz
Um espaço aberto
de amor incondicional
de abraçar o mundo.
Por João Soares 14 de Dezembro de 2014

segunda-feira, 8 de dezembro de 2014

Compaixão Activa: uma urgência

"Segundo os nossos estudos, a compaixão parece ser um dos ingredientes-chave para a felicidade genuína" - Daniel Goleman 

Ler mais em Research: The Key Ingredient to Genuine Happiness | Daniel Goleman

We would all like to be happier in our personal and professional lives, even those of us who already love what we do, or are content with personal accomplishments. As the year comes to a close, we often become more introspective: what do we want to do more/less of next year? What worked, and what didn’t?

Richard Davidson of The Center for Investigating Healthy Minds is a research pioneer on the benefits of meditation. One positive outcome of meditation that’s piqued his interest is happiness.

Mirabai Bush spoke with Richard for the series Working with Mindfulness: Research and Practice of Mindful Techniques in Organizations. Davidson talked about his research with long-time meditation practitioners. His findings helped him piece together what may be important ingredients for genuine or enduring happiness.

“When we're talking about genuine or enduring happiness, we're not talking about the transient change that you experience when you eat a good meal. Or when you buy a new product, after which you rapidly return to your set point. We're talking about an enduring change that persists across contexts.

Based on our findings, one of the key ingredients seems to be compassion. This is something that His Holiness the Dalai Lama talks about very often. He said one of the best ways to promote one's own happiness is to be kind to others, to be generous. There's good experimental research to support that.

In one study, participants came into the lab in the morning and were given $100 each. They were told to spend the money on themselves.

Another group was given the same amount of money but were told to buy things for other people and give it to them. The only restriction: you can't use any of the money for yourself. At the end of the day, guess which group reported much higher levels of happiness?

The givers

We see this repeatedly. The evidence is beginning to grow that adopting a stance that is focused on other as opposed to self is something that really helps to promote well-being and happiness.

Another study found that 47% of the time the average American is mind wandering and not paying attention to what they're doing. What are we thinking about? The mind wandering is typically self-focused. And when they are self-focused, they report most of the time that they are in a relatively negative mood. They're not happy.

One of the conclusions from that study is that a wandering mind is an unhappy mind. I think that if we can direct our thoughts toward the well-being of others, it actually will help in promoting a more enduring, genuine kind of happiness.

In the long-term practitioners we studied we noticed that they practiced compassion so much that it becomes an automatic response. They're always focused on the well-being of others and not on themselves.”

sábado, 6 de dezembro de 2014

Seis tipos de plantas funcionam como repelentes naturais de insetos

Citronela
Plantar uma semente, regá-la, introduzir terra e acompanhar seu crescimento. Todas essas são práticas que os amantes de plantas adoram realizar - muitas vezes as encaram até como terapia. No entanto, certas plantas atraem insetos, que podem inibir o próprio crescimento dos vegetais ou trazer transtornos por causa de sua grande concentração e reprodução.
Uma possível solução passa pelo uso de pesticidas e repelentes, se não fosse o fato de que eles são nocivos não só para as plantas, mas para a saúde humana, pois contêm substâncias tóxicas. A melhor opção, mais saudável e ecológica, é criar plantas que repelem insetos em seu jardim, principalmente em locais com grande incidência de insetos. Dê uma olhada:

Lavanda
Além de ser uma planta que pode perfumar ambientes internos, devido ao seu cheiro adocicado, e decorá-los, por causa de sua beleza, a lavanda ajuda a espantar mosquitos;
Citronela

Outro excelente repelente natural contra mosquitos, principalmente os borrachudos e os pernilongos. Caso seja combinada com outras duas plantas repelentes naturais, a erva do gato e a cascata gerânio, o efeito se torna mais potente ainda;

Hortelã
Basta plantar várias em torno do seu jardim que as formigas não vão mais incomodar suas plantas. Aproveite para ver aqui outra forma de se livrar das formigas em casa sem usar pesticidas;

Ajuda a manter baratas, percevejos, pulgas e carrapatos afastados;

Manjericão
O cheiro forte da planta afasta moscas e mosquitos;

Alecrim
Também repele os mosquitos e pode ajudar a manter gatos afastados de locais em que a presença deles seja indesejável, como numa caixa de areia destinada para o lazer de crianças. Basta colocar algumas folhas de alecrim no local - os gatos não gostam do cheiro.

Confira este vídeo (em inglês) sobre as diferentes plantas que repelem os mosquitos.

quinta-feira, 4 de dezembro de 2014

Nós cientistas estamos assustados: Estamos indo direto para o matadouro!

Antonio Donato Nobre é um dos melhores cientistas brasileiros, pertence ao grupo do IPCC que mede o aquecimento da Terra e é um especialista em questões amazônicas. É mundialmente conhecido como pesquisador do INPE (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais). Excerto do evento de lançamento do relatório “O Futuro Climático da Amazônia” em 30/10/2014.

quarta-feira, 3 de dezembro de 2014

Sobre postura, ergonomia, trabalho, estudo e...computadores vs ar livre...

Se é viciado em trabalho.Bem...Então pelo menos faça direito! Vejam até ao fim...

terça-feira, 2 de dezembro de 2014

Escolas que questionam o sistema e dão a cada aluno o seu tempo

Há escolas que não têm manuais, nem aulas expositivas. Em algumas são os alunos que escolhem o que estudar e quando querem ser avaliados. Noutras, as notas não contam mais do que aprender a conhecer-se e a ser feliz.
[Texto completo no Público, 24 de Novembro]

O dia começa com uma roda. De mãos dadas, cantam, saltam à corda, dizem poemas. A professora toca flauta, fala do vento, eles rodopiam. Só depois vão para a aula. A Casa da Floresta Verdes Anos, colégio em Lisboa onde não há computadores nem quadros interactivos, não é a única a seguir uma via menos convencional.

N’Os Aprendizes, em Cascais, além do edifício onde decorrem as aulas, há uma casa, o Reino dos Sentidos, dedicada sobretudo à arte-terapia: não é só para meninos com necessidades educativas especiais, qualquer criança pode ir lá e tentar ultrapassar uma dificuldade através da pintura, música, neuroterapia, entre outras hipóteses.

Estes colégios são privados, mas a Escola da Ponte, Santo Tirso, do pré-escolar ao 3.º ciclo, é pública. Sem aulas expositivas, são os alunos que escolhem as matérias e quando querem ser avaliados.

São três exemplos, entre outros que não encaixam no sistema convencional. Não se vangloriam de serem os melhores nos rankings, mas garantem que as crianças aprendem e trabalham a criatividade, o espírito crítico, a cidadania, a liberdade, a responsabilidade.

“Não acreditamos na avaliação quantitativa, mas qualitativa. O professor olha para cada criança e vê se brinca, se come, se resolve um problema na sala, lá fora, se tem dificuldade a Português, a Matemática. Não há um melhor do que outro”, diz Rita Dacosta, directora da Casa da Floresta, colégio até ao 1.º ciclo que segue a pedagogia Waldorf.


Além desta pedagogia, Os Aprendizes cruza o método High Scope e o Movimento Escola Moderna. À fusão chamaram “Pedagogia do Amor”: “Está na moda falar em sucesso, não em amor. Mas preparar os miúdos para a vida não é só prepará-los tecnicamente. Ser bem sucedido profissionalmente é ser feliz, realizado, trabalhar em algo produtivo, é cada um alcançar o máximo do seu potencial”, diz Sofia Borges, directora deste colégio até ao 2.º ciclo.